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如何既经济又合理地选择到适合本企业的卧式加工中心

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如何既经济又合理地选择到适合本企业的卧式加工中心

发布日期:2018-02-07 作者:18360.com.cn 点击:


如何既经济又合理地选择到适合本企业的卧式加工中心十分重要。可以说,正确选型是用好卧式加工中心的基础,是使卧式加工中心发挥出最大效率和效益的关键。卧式加工中心一次性投资大、技术复杂,同时种类、规格繁多,其价格、功能和精度又是一个对立的统一体,用户在选购时往往有不少疑问。

卧式加工中心

1我应该使用(yong)卧式加(jia)工中(zhong)心(xin)吗?——加(jia)工工件特征

加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心类型的(de)(de)选定需要(yao)(yao)考(kao)虑(lv)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)对(dui)(dui)象、加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺(yi)(yi)、加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)范围和设备(bei)价格等(deng)因(yin)素(su)(su),根据所选零(ling)件(jian)族(zu) (组)进行。如果您的(de)(de)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)件(jian)具有以下特征,则应(ying)选择(ze)卧(wo)式加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心:加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)两面(mian)(mian)以上(shang)的(de)(de)零(ling)件(jian)或(huo)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)在(zai)四周(zhou)呈径向辐射状排列的(de)(de)孔系(xi)、面(mian)(mian),如箱体类、壳体类零(ling)件(jian)等(deng),应(ying)选择(ze)卧(wo)式加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心;被加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)零(ling)件(jian)的(de)(de)位置(zhi)精(jing)度要(yao)(yao)求(qiu)较高,宜选用高精(jing)密卧(wo)式加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心;零(ling)件(jian)在(zai)一次装夹中(zhong)需要(yao)(yao)完成多面(mian)(mian)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)时,可选择(ze)立卧(wo)复合(he)(he)式五面(mian)(mian)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心。当然,上(shang)述各点也不是绝对(dui)(dui)的(de)(de),一方面(mian)(mian)是由于加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心正朝着复合(he)(he)化方向发展,另一方面(mian)(mian)选型时要(yao)(yao)综合(he)(he)考(kao)虑(lv)生产效率、加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺(yi)(yi)要(yao)(yao)求(qiu)和设备(bei)资金等(deng)因(yin)素(su)(su),要(yao)(yao)以性价比来衡量选型方案的(de)(de)合(he)(he)理性。

建议:采购用户需要(yao)根(gen)据加工对象、加工工艺、加工范围等特征来确定是否使(shi)(shi)用卧式加工中(zhong)心(xin)以及使(shi)(shi)用什么样的卧式加工中(zhong)心(xin)。

2我需要选用什么规格的卧式加工中心?——主要规格的选定

(1)工作台尺寸

这是(shi)卧式(shi)加工(gong)(gong)(gong)中心的(de)主(zhu)参(can)数,主(zhu)要取决于典型(xing)零(ling)件(jian)的(de)外(wai)廓(kuo)尺(chi)寸(cun)、装(zhuang)(zhuang)(zhuang)夹方式(shi)等(deng)。应选择比(bi)典型(xing)零(ling)件(jian)外(wai)廓(kuo)尺(chi)寸(cun)稍大一(yi)些的(de)工(gong)(gong)(gong)作(zuo)台,以便留出安装(zhuang)(zhuang)(zhuang)夹具所(suo)需(xu)的(de)空间,保(bao)证(zheng)零(ling)件(jian)在其上面能够顺利装(zhuang)(zhuang)(zhuang)夹,此外(wai)还应考虑(lv)工(gong)(gong)(gong)作(zuo)台的(de)承载能力、T形槽数量和(he)尺(chi)寸(cun)等(deng),小尺(chi)寸(cun)的(de)比(bi)较通(tong)用,比(bi)如站内的(de)卧式(shi)加工(gong)(gong)(gong)中心MH-630A、MH-800A、MH-500A、LH-630B等(deng)。

建议:目前(qian)市场上(shang)的(de)卧式(shi)加工中心工作台尺寸多为1000以下的(de),能够(gou)满足大多数用户的(de)需求。

(2)坐标轴行程(cheng)

最基(ji)(ji)本的(de)(de)坐标轴是(shi)X、Y、Z三轴,其(qi)行程(cheng)和(he)工(gong)作台(tai)尺(chi)寸有相应(ying)的(de)(de)比例(li)关系,工(gong)作台(tai)面的(de)(de)大(da)(da)小基(ji)(ji)本上确定了加(jia)工(gong)空(kong)间的(de)(de)大(da)(da)小。如个别(bie)零件(jian)(jian)的(de)(de)尺(chi)寸大(da)(da)于(yu)卧式(shi)加(jia)工(gong)中心行程(cheng)时,则必须(xu)要(yao)求(qiu)零件(jian)(jian)的(de)(de)加(jia)工(gong)区域(yu)处于(yu)机床(chuang)的(de)(de)行程(cheng)范围之内,此外还要(yao)考虑零件(jian)(jian)是(shi)否与机床(chuang)交换刀具的(de)(de)空(kong)间干涉(she)、与机床(chuang)防(fang)护罩等(deng)附(fu)件(jian)(jian)发生干涉(she)等(deng)系列问题。而对需要(yao)多轴联动(dong)加(jia)工(gong)的(de)(de)卧式(shi)加(jia)工(gong)中心 (如增(zeng)加(jia)回转坐标A、B、C或附(fu)加(jia)坐标U、V、W),如四轴、五(wu)轴联动(dong)卧式(shi)加(jia)工(gong)中心,这就需要(yao)特殊(shu)订货,同时必须(xu)对相应(ying)配套的(de)(de)编程(cheng)软(ruan)件(jian)(jian)、测量手段以及机床(chuang)价格等(deng)有全面的(de)(de)考虑和(he)安(an)排。

建议(yi):采购用(yong)户需要根据加(jia)工(gong)工(gong)件规格选择不同(tong)坐标轴行程的卧式加(jia)工(gong)中心(xin),多轴联动需要特殊定(ding)制(zhi)。

(3)主轴(zhou)电动机功率与转矩

它反映(ying)了卧(wo)式加工(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)(xin)的(de)(de)切(qie)(qie)削(xue)效率(lv),也从一(yi)个(ge)侧面反映(ying)了卧(wo)式加工(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)(xin)的(de)(de)切(qie)(qie)削(xue)刚性和机(ji)床整体刚度。主(zhu)轴(zhou)电动(dong)机(ji)功率(lv)在同(tong)类(lei)规(gui)格的(de)(de)卧(wo)式加工(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)(xin)上可(ke)以(yi)有各(ge)种不(bu)同(tong)的(de)(de)配置(zhi),同(tong)类(lei)规(gui)格的(de)(de)主(zhu)轴(zhou)转(zhuan)速不(bu)同(tong)的(de)(de)卧(wo)式加工(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)(xin),主(zhu)轴(zhou)电动(dong)机(ji)功率(lv)可(ke)以(yi)相差很大。

建议(yi):采购用户应根据自身典型零(ling)件毛坯(pi)余量大(da)小(xiao)、切削能力 (单位时间(jian)金属切削量)、要求达到的加工精度、实际(ji)能配置的刀具(ju)等因素综合选择。

(4)主轴(zhou)转速与进给速度

需(xu)要高(gao)速(su)(su)(su)切削或超低速(su)(su)(su)切削时(shi),应关注主(zhu)轴(zhou)(zhou)(zhou)的转(zhuan)速(su)(su)(su)范围。特(te)别是高(gao)速(su)(su)(su)切削时(shi),既要有高(gao)的主(zhu)轴(zhou)(zhou)(zhou)转(zhuan)速(su)(su)(su),同时(shi)也(ye)要具备(bei)与主(zhu)轴(zhou)(zhou)(zhou)转(zhuan)速(su)(su)(su)相(xiang)匹配(pei)的进给速(su)(su)(su)度。目(mu)前卧式加工中心(xin)高(gao)速(su)(su)(su)化趋势发展很快,主(zhu)轴(zhou)(zhou)(zhou)从每分钟几千转(zhuan)到(dao)几万转(zhuan),直线坐标快速(su)(su)(su)移(yi)动(dong)速(su)(su)(su)度从10—20/min上(shang)升(sheng)到(dao)80m/min以上(shang),当然(ran)其功能部(bu)件如电(dian)主(zhu)轴(zhou)(zhou)(zhou)、直线电(dian)动(dong)机(ji)、直线滚动(dong)导(dao)轨、主(zhu)轴(zhou)(zhou)(zhou)轴(zhou)(zhou)(zhou)承(cheng)等及(ji)相(xiang)配(pei)套的光栅尺、刀具等附件价格也(ye)都相(xiang)应上(shang)升(sheng),甚至很昂贵(gui)。

建议:采购用(yong)户必须根据自(zi)身的(de)技术能力和配套能力合(he)理作(zuo)出卧式(shi)加工(gong)中心的(de)合(he)理选型。

(5)刀库容量

可以(yi)根据被(bei)加工零件的工艺(yi)分析结(jie)果来(lai)确定所需数(shu)量(liang),通常以(yi)典型零件在(zai)一次装夹中所需刀(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)具(ju)数(shu)量(liang)来(lai)确定刀(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)库的容量(liang),卧式(shi)加工中心(xin)以(yi)选用(yong)40把刀(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)左(zuo)右的刀(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)库为(wei)宜。同时要(yao)关注最(zui)大刀(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)具(ju)直径与长度以(yi)及最(zui)大刀(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)具(ju)重量(liang)等。用(yong)于FMC或(huo)FMS的卧式(shi)加工中心(xin),应选择(ze)大容量(liang)刀(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)库,甚至配置(zhi)可交换刀(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)库。

建议(yi):普通(tong)卧式加工(gong)中心选择40把(ba)刀左右的刀库即够(gou)用,用于FMC或(huo)FMS的卧式加工(gong)中心应选择大容量刀库。

3我需(xu)要选用什么精度的(de)(de)卧式加工(gong)中心(xin)?——精度的(de)(de)选定

加工中(zhong)心的(de)(de)精(jing)(jing)(jing)度等(deng)(deng)级主要(yao)根据典型零件关键部位(wei)(wei)的(de)(de)精(jing)(jing)(jing)度来确定(ding)(ding)。其精(jing)(jing)(jing)度主要(yao)包括定(ding)(ding)位(wei)(wei)精(jing)(jing)(jing)度、重复定(ding)(ding)位(wei)(wei)精(jing)(jing)(jing)度和铣圆精(jing)(jing)(jing)度,特别(bie)是(shi)重复定(ding)(ding)位(wei)(wei)精(jing)(jing)(jing)度,它反映了坐标轴(zhou)的(de)(de)定(ding)(ding)位(wei)(wei)稳定(ding)(ding)性,是(shi)衡量该轴(zhou)是(shi)否稳定(ding)(ding)可靠工作的(de)(de)基(ji)本指标。特别(bie)值得注意(yi)的(de)(de)是(shi),选型订(ding)货(huo)时必须全面分(fen)(fen)析,不(bu)(bu)(bu)(bu)能简(jian)单(dan)地看产(chan)品样本所(suo)列(lie)的(de)(de)精(jing)(jing)(jing)度数值,因为标准(zhun)(zhun)(zhun)不(bu)(bu)(bu)(bu)同、规定(ding)(ding)数值不(bu)(bu)(bu)(bu)同、检测方(fang)法(fa)不(bu)(bu)(bu)(bu)同,数值的(de)(de)含(han)义就(jiu)不(bu)(bu)(bu)(bu)同。刊物、样本、合格证所(suo)列(lie)出的(de)(de)单(dan)位(wei)(wei)长度上允许的(de)(de)正(zheng)负(fu)值(一(yi)般(ban)为正(zheng)负(fu)0.05)常常是(shi)不(bu)(bu)(bu)(bu)明(ming)确的(de)(de),订(ding)货(huo)时要(yao)特别(bie)注意(yi),一(yi)定(ding)(ding)要(yao)弄清是(shi)IOS(国(guo)际标准(zhun)(zhun)(zhun)化组织标准(zhun)(zhun)(zhun))、VDI(德国(guo)标准(zhun)(zhun)(zhun))、JIS(日本标准(zhun)(zhun)(zhun))、NMTBA(美国(guo)机(ji)床制造商协会标准(zhun)(zhun)(zhun))还是(shi)NAS(美国(guo)标准(zhun)(zhun)(zhun))及GB(中(zhong)国(guo)标准(zhun)(zhun)(zhun))等(deng)(deng),进而分(fen)(fen)析各种不(bu)(bu)(bu)(bu)同标准(zhun)(zhun)(zhun)所(suo)规定(ding)(ding)的(de)(de)检测计算方(fang)法(fa)和检测环境条(tiao)件,才不(bu)(bu)(bu)(bu)会产(chan)生误解。

铣圆精(jing)度是(shi)综(zong)合评(ping)价卧式加工中心有关数控(kong)轴的(de)(de)伺(si)服(fu)跟(gen)随(sui)运动特性和数控(kong)系统插补功能(neng)的(de)(de)主要(yao)指(zhi)标之一。不论典(dian)型零件是(shi)否有此(ci)需要(yao),为(wei)了(le)将来可能(neng)的(de)(de)需要(yao)及(ji)更好地控(kong)制精(jing)度,必须重视这一指(zhi)标。

要特别注意区(qu)别加(jia)工(gong)精度(du)与机床精度(du)两个(ge)不同的(de)(de)概(gai)念(nian)。将生(sheng)产厂家样本(ben)上或产品合格证上的(de)(de)位置精度(du)当作卧式(shi)加(jia)工(gong)中心(xin)的(de)(de)加(jia)工(gong)精度(du)是错误(wu)(wu)的(de)(de)。样本(ben)或合格证上标明的(de)(de)位置精度(du)是加(jia)工(gong)中心(xin)本(ben)身(shen)的(de)(de)精度(du),而(er)加(jia)工(gong)精度(du)是包(bao)括卧式(shi)加(jia)工(gong)中心(xin)本(ben)身(shen)所(suo)允许误(wu)(wu)差(cha)在内的(de)(de)整个(ge)工(gong)艺系统(tong)各种(zhong)因(yin)素所(suo)产生(sheng)的(de)(de)误(wu)(wu)差(cha)总和。整个(ge)工(gong)艺系统(tong)误(wu)(wu)差(cha)产生(sheng)的(de)(de)原因(yin)是很(hen)复杂的(de)(de),很(hen)难用线性关系定(ding)量(liang)表达。选型时,可参考工(gong)序能(neng)力(li)系数Cp的(de)(de)评定(ding)方法来作为机床加(jia)工(gong)精度(du)的(de)(de)选型依据。一般(ban)而(er)言,Cp应大于1.33。

站(zhan)内高精密(mi)的几(ji)款卧式(shi)加(jia)工中心:MH-630B、LH-300A、MH-500B、TH500动柱式(shi)卧式(shi)加(jia)工中心性能都不错。

建议:采(cai)购用户在挑(tiao)选不同精(jing)度(du)的卧式加工(gong)中心(xin)时,需要考虑:不同标准对应(ying)的单位长(zhang)度(du)含义(yi);重(zhong)视铣圆精(jing)度(du)指(zhi)标;区别(bie)加工(gong)精(jing)度(du)和机(ji)床精(jing)度(du)。

4我应(ying)该选择哪种数控系统(tong)?——数控系统(tong)的选定

数(shu)控(kong)系(xi)(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)(tong)功(gong)(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)分为基本功(gong)(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)与选(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)择功(gong)(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng),可以从操(cao)作(zuo)方(fang)(fang)式(shi)、用户功(gong)(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)、控(kong)制方(fang)(fang)式(shi)、驱动形(xing)式(shi)、反馈(kui)形(xing)式(shi)、接口(kou)形(xing)式(shi)、检测(ce)与测(ce)量、报(bao)警(jing)与提示、故障诊断等方(fang)(fang)面综合衡量。基本功(gong)(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)是必须提供(gong)(gong)的(de)(de),而只有当用户选(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)择了(le)选(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)择功(gong)(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)后,厂家(jia)才会另(ling)(ling)行提供(gong)(gong)并另(ling)(ling)行加价,且定价一(yi)般较(jiao)高(gao)(gao)。总体(ti)而言,数(shu)控(kong)系(xi)(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)(tong)的(de)(de)功(gong)(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)一(yi)定要根(gen)据(ju)加工中(zhong)心(xin)(xin)的(de)(de)性能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)需要来选(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)择,订购(gou)时(shi)既要把需要的(de)(de)功(gong)(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)订全,不能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)遗(yi)漏(lou),同时(shi)避免使(shi)用率不高(gao)(gao)而造成浪费,还需注(zhu)意各功(gong)(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)之间的(de)(de)关联性。另(ling)(ling)一(yi)方(fang)(fang)面,在可供(gong)(gong)选(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)择的(de)(de)数(shu)控(kong)系(xi)(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)(tong)中(zhong),如(ru)SIEMENS系(xi)(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)(tong)、FANUC系(xi)(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)(tong)、国(guo)产(chan)(chan)华中(zhong)数(shu)控(kong)系(xi)(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)(tong)等,性能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)高(gao)(gao)低(di)差(cha)别很大(da),价格(ge)亦相差(cha)很大(da),进口(kou)系(xi)(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)(tong)或国(guo)产(chan)(chan)系(xi)(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)(tong)亦决定其价格(ge)的(de)(de)高(gao)(gao)低(di)。总体(ti)上来看,法兰克(ke)系(xi)(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)(tong)性价比(bi)(bi)(bi)比(bi)(bi)(bi)较(jiao)高(gao)(gao),国(guo)内卧(wo)式(shi)加工中(zhong)心(xin)(xin)使(shi)用比(bi)(bi)(bi)例比(bi)(bi)(bi)较(jiao)高(gao)(gao)。站内卧(wo)式(shi)加工中(zhong)心(xin)(xin)使(shi)用法兰克(ke)数(shu)控(kong)系(xi)(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)(tong)的(de)(de)也比(bi)(bi)(bi)较(jiao)多,比(bi)(bi)(bi)如(ru)MH-800B 、 LH-500B都(dou)是比(bi)(bi)(bi)较(jiao)好的(de)(de)选(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)择。多台卧(wo)式(shi)加工中(zhong)心(xin)(xin)选(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)型时(shi),应(ying)尽可能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)选(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)用同一(yi)厂家(jia)的(de)(de)数(shu)控(kong)系(xi)(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)(tong),这样操(cao)作(zuo)、编程(cheng)、维修都(dou)比(bi)(bi)(bi)较(jiao)方(fang)(fang)便。

建议:法兰克数控系统性价比比较高,多台卧式加工中心选型尽量选用同一厂家的数控系统。

5我需要选择几台(tai)卧式加工中心能达(da)到的(de)我的(de)产量要求?——生产能力的(de)估算

选型时(shi),必须要考虑卧式(shi)(shi)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)(xin)(xin)能(neng)达(da)(da)到(dao)(dao)的(de)(de)(de)(de)生产(chan)(chan)能(neng)力,即(ji)要求选定(ding)(ding)的(de)(de)(de)(de)卧式(shi)(shi)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)(xin)(xin)在一(yi)年之内能(neng)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)几种典(dian)(dian)型零(ling)件、加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)出(chu)多少数(shu)(shu)量(liang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)零(ling)件。要得到(dao)(dao)这些数(shu)(shu)据必须对每(mei)一(yi)种确(que)定(ding)(ding)的(de)(de)(de)(de)典(dian)(dian)型零(ling)件进行加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)时(shi)和生产(chan)(chan)节拍的(de)(de)(de)(de)估(gu)算(suan)。一(yi)般(ban)步(bu)骤为:首先,根(gen)据已(yi)选定(ding)(ding)的(de)(de)(de)(de)典(dian)(dian)型零(ling)件进行工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺(yi)分析,初步(bu)确(que)定(ding)(ding)一(yi)条(tiao)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺(yi)路线,在这条(tiao)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺(yi)路线中(zhong)选出(chu)准备在卧式(shi)(shi)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)(xin)(xin)上(shang)(shang)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)序(xu)(xu);第(di)二,根(gen)据现用(yong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺(yi)参数(shu)(shu),估(gu)算(suan)出(chu)每(mei)道在卧式(shi)(shi)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)(xin)(xin)上(shang)(shang)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)序(xu)(xu)的(de)(de)(de)(de)单(dan)个(ge)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)序(xu)(xu)时(shi)间;第(di)三,由每(mei)个(ge)单(dan)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)序(xu)(xu)时(shi)间计(ji)算(suan)出(chu)选定(ding)(ding)零(ling)件在卧式(shi)(shi)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)(xin)(xin)上(shang)(shang)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)序(xu)(xu)的(de)(de)(de)(de)总时(shi)间,进而(er)计(ji)算(suan)出(chu)年产(chan)(chan)量(liang)即(ji)生产(chan)(chan)能(neng)力。如果(guo)估(gu)算(suan)结(jie)果(guo)达(da)(da)不到(dao)(dao)目标值,但相差(cha)不大(da),则可以通过修改(gai)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺(yi)参数(shu)(shu)的(de)(de)(de)(de)方(fang)法加(jia)(jia)(jia)以调整;如果(guo)相差(cha)很大(da),则应考虑增(zeng)加(jia)(jia)(jia)卧式(shi)(shi)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)(xin)(xin)台数(shu)(shu)的(de)(de)(de)(de)配(pei)置(zhi)。

建议:采购用户(hu)需要(yao)根据工(gong)(gong)件加(jia)工(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)时和生(sheng)产节拍的估(gu)算,决定(ding)卧式(shi)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)中心配备台数。

6卧式加工中(zhong)心(xin)有好多选配的附件我应该如何选配?——其他功能部件及附件的选定

(1)坐标轴数和联(lian)动轴数

坐标轴(zhou)数(shu)(shu)和(he)联(lian)动轴(zhou)数(shu)(shu)均应满足(zu)典型(xing)零(ling)件加工要求。一般(ban)情况下(xia),同厂(chang)家、同规格、同等(deng)精度的(de)卧式加工中(zhong)心(xin),增(zeng)加一个标准坐标轴(zhou),价格约增(zeng)加30%—50%。尽管(guan)增(zeng)加坐标轴(zhou)数(shu)(shu)可以强化加工中(zhong)心(xin)的(de)功能,是(shi)机床上档(dang)次的(de)标志之(zhi)一,但最终还是(shi)要在工艺要求和(he)资金条件下(xia)平衡决定。

(2)工(gong)作台

卧式(shi)加工(gong)中心可(ke)配置(zhi)用(yong)于分度的回转工(gong)作台(tai)和数控回转工(gong)作台(tai),后者能够实(shi)现(xian)任意分度,作为(wei)B轴与其他轴联动控制。回转工(gong)作台(tai)配置(zhi)与否以及如何(he)配置(zhi)必须以实(shi)际(ji)需(xu)要来确(que)定,以经济、实(shi)用(yong)为(wei)目的。

(3)自动(dong)换刀装置(zhi) (ATC)

ATC的选(xuan)择主要考虑换刀(dao)时(shi)间与可(ke)靠性(xing)。过分强调换刀(dao)时(shi)间会使加工(gong)中心的价格大(da)幅度提高(gao)并(bing)使故障率(lv)上升(sheng)。据统计,加工(gong)中心的故障中约(yue)有50%与ATC有关,因此,在满足使用(yong)要求(qiu)的前提下(xia),尽量选(xuan)用(yong)可(ke)靠性(xing)高(gao)的ATC,以降低故障率(lv)和整机成本

(4)必要的附件(jian)、配套件(jian)

选(xuan)(xuan)型时,还应注意选(xuan)(xuan)用一(yi)些配套件(jian)及附(fu)件(jian),尽量避免因(yin)缺少一(yi)个几万元(yuan)就能购买的(de)(de)附(fu)件(jian)而影响(xiang)卧(wo)式(shi)加工(gong)中心的(de)(de)正(zheng)常(chang)运(yun)行。慎(shen)重选(xuan)(xuan)择刀柄(bing)和刀具(ju)也(ye)是(shi)(shi)(shi)保证卧(wo)式(shi)加工(gong)中心正(zheng)常(chang)运(yun)行的(de)(de)关(guan)键(jian),最佳的(de)(de)选(xuan)(xuan)择办(ban)法应是(shi)(shi)(shi)根据典型零件(jian)所需的(de)(de)品种和数量来确定(ding),并在(zai)使(shi)用中陆续添置(zhi)(zhi)。在(zai)卧(wo)式(shi)加工(gong)中心的(de)(de)构成中,排屑装(zhuang)(zhuang)置(zhi)(zhi)、防护装(zhuang)(zhuang)置(zhi)(zhi)和对刀装(zhuang)(zhuang)置(zhi)(zhi) (如(ru)刀具(ju)预调仪(yi))等(deng)均是(shi)(shi)(shi)必需的(de)(de),对一(yi)些尽管不是(shi)(shi)(shi)必需的(de)(de)配套件(jian),但如(ru)果价格不高,对使(shi)用带来很多方便,也(ye)应尽量选(xuan)(xuan)用,如(ru)附(fu)件(jian)铣头、储(chu)刀料架、运(yun)刀具(ju)车、装(zhuang)(zhuang)卸器等(deng)。

建议:配(pei)件越高,能(neng)实现(xian)的功能(neng)越多,但价格也越贵(gui),采购(gou)用(yong)户需(xu)要(yao)根据(ju)加工(gong)需(xu)求酌(zhuo)情选配(pei)。

7卧式加工中心选型时还有什么其(qi)他需要注意的?——需要注意的一些问(wen)题

(1)结构设(she)计

加(jia)工中心对其(qi)(qi)床身、立柱、工作台、主轴以及刀库等功能部件(jian)的(de)结(jie)构(gou)设计(ji)有着很高的(de)要求,以达到其(qi)(qi)高强度、高刚度、高抗振(zhen)性和稳定性的(de)目(mu)的(de)。选(xuan)型时,应(ying)特别注意把(ba)其(qi)(qi)结(jie)构(gou)作为一项重要的(de)具体内容来进行要求与考虑。

(2)功(gong)能与加工的(de)适应性

虽(sui)然加工中(zhong)(zhong)心可以进行钻、扩(kuo)、铣、镗、铰、攻螺纹(wen)乃至车削 (如车铣复(fu)合加工中(zhong)(zhong)心)等多种加工,但是(shi)在具体选择(ze)时,还应根据具体需(xu)要(yao)(yao)来(lai)考虑机床的功(gong)能(neng)与加工是(shi)否相(xiang)适应等问题(ti)。要(yao)(yao)注意以下几点:

A、复杂曲(qu)线加工(gong)(gong)时(shi),要(yao)考(kao)虑CNC是否(fou)有(you)(you)所需(xu)要(yao)的(de)曲(qu)线插补功能,或选择什么方式逼近加工(gong)(gong)曲(qu)线并保证所要(yao)求的(de)表面(mian)粗(cu)糙度。三(san)维加工(gong)(gong)时(shi),要(yao)考(kao)虑选择适合的(de)刀(dao)具结构,还要(yao)考(kao)虑程序编(bian)制能力,如有(you)(you)必要(yao)则必须配备自动编(bian)程装置或后置处理编(bian)程装置。

B、需要(yao)进(jin)行螺(luo)纹(wen)切(qie)(qie)(qie)(qie)削(xue) (非攻螺(luo)纹(wen)方(fang)式)时,不仅(jin)要(yao)看(kan)是否有(you)螺(luo)纹(wen)切(qie)(qie)(qie)(qie)削(xue)功能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)、螺(luo)旋线插(cha)补功能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)和(he)主轴转(zhuan)动(dong)与进(jin)给同步功能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng),还要(yao)考虑(lv)(lv)机床是否有(you)径向进(jin)给装(zhuang)置、是否有(you)主轴在(zai)(zai)旋转(zhuan)方(fang)向上任意角度位置准确定位功能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)。否则,仅(jin)在(zai)(zai)数控(kong)系统中用了螺(luo)纹(wen)切(qie)(qie)(qie)(qie)削(xue)功能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)仍然无法进(jin)行螺(luo)纹(wen)切(qie)(qie)(qie)(qie)削(xue)C、采用金刚(gang)铰、浮动(dong)镗和(he)挤压加工(gong)等特种加工(gong)时,既要(yao)考虑(lv)(lv)适(shi)宜的(de)自动(dong)换刀(dao)的(de)条(tiao)件,又要(yao)考虑(lv)(lv)选(xuan)择合(he)适(shi)的(de)刀(dao)具结构和(he)切(qie)(qie)(qie)(qie)削(xue)用量,应(ying)尽可能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)在(zai)(zai)购买主机时一并购置部分易损部件及(ji)其他附(fu)件等。

D、如果有(you)应(ying)用(yong)DNC、FMS、CIMS等(deng)的(de)规划(hua),或要进行网络制造(zao),则要注意通信功(gong)能,应(ying)选择(ze)具有(you)RS—232、RS—485甚至MAP网络通信、CAN总线等(deng)接口的(de)系统。

(3)运转的可靠(kao)性

卧式加工中心运转的可靠性决定了其质量好坏。数控系统由于某一块插件板故障造成停机数月的现象屡见不鲜,一个传感器失效造成机床丧失部分功能的现象也多有发生。所以在选型过程中,应采取对老用户进行走访等方式,更多一些了解所选卧式加工中心的使用情况。

建议:采购用(yong)户(hu)在选型时,需要对卧式加(jia)(jia)工(gong)中心(xin)整体的(de)结(jie)构(gou)设(she)计、可靠性(xing)以(yi)及价(jia)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)适(shi)应性(xing)有客观的(de)认识。


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