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桁架机械手在机床生产线上的具体应用

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桁架机械手在机床生产线上的具体应用

发布日期:2018-02-07 作者:18360.com.cn 点击:

桁架机械手作为时尚的一种输送工具,越来越受到青睐。目前,国内外主流的柔性自动线物流系统主要有两种形式:由桁架机械手输送工件组成的全自动生产系统和由机器人搬运系统进行上下料组成自动生产线。在欧美日等发达工业体系,由高速加工中心和桁架机械手组成的敏捷柔性生产系统已经是主流产品,桁架机械手在高空中输送零件,直接把被加工零件从一台机床输送到另一台机床上,桁架机械手兼有工序间运输和自动上下料及物料回转等辅助功能。由于它输送快捷、精准、柔性, 结构相对简捷,便于组合。因而,被机床制造商所器重。

桁架机械手的结构与工作原理

桁(heng)架机(ji)械手由主(zhu)体、驱(qu)动系(xi)(xi)统和控(kong)制系(xi)(xi)统三个(ge)基(ji)本部分(fen)组成(cheng)。按机(ji)器人(ren)结构分(fen)类为(wei)直角(jiao)坐(zuo)标型,机(ji)械手沿二维直角(jiao)坐(zuo)标系(xi)(xi)移动。主(zhu)体部分(fen)通(tong)常(chang)采(cai)用(yong)龙门式结构,由y向(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)横(heng)梁与(yu)导(dao)轨(gui)(gui)(gui)、z向(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)滑(hua)(hua)枕、十字滑(hua)(hua)座、立柱、过渡连接板和基(ji)座等部分(fen)组成(cheng),z向(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)的(de)(de)直线运动皆(jie)为(wei)交流伺服电动机(ji)通(tong)过蜗轮(lun)(lun)减(jian)速(su)器驱(qu)动齿轮(lun)(lun)与(yu)y向(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)横(heng)梁、z向(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)滑(hua)(hua)枕上(shang)固定(ding)的(de)(de)齿条(tiao)作滚(gun)动,驱(qu)动移动部件沿导(dao)轨(gui)(gui)(gui)快(kuai)速(su)运动。移动部件为(wei)质量较轻(qing)的(de)(de)十字滑(hua)(hua)座和z向(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)滑(hua)(hua)枕,滑(hua)(hua)枕采(cai)用(yong)由铝合金拉(la)制的(de)(de)型材。横(heng)梁采(cai)用(yong)方钢型材,在横(heng)梁上(shang)安(an)装(zhuang)有导(dao)轨(gui)(gui)(gui)和齿条(tiao),通(tong)过滚(gun)轮(lun)(lun)与(yu)导(dao)轨(gui)(gui)(gui)接触,整个(ge)机(ji)械手都悬挂(gua)在其上(shang)。

3   桁架机器人 重型机器人.jpg

由于桁架(jia)机(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)手输送(song)的(de)(de)(de)(de)速(su)(su)(su)(su)(su)度(du)(du)(du)快(kuai),加速(su)(su)(su)(su)(su)度(du)(du)(du)大,加减(jian)速(su)(su)(su)(su)(su)时(shi)(shi)间(jian)短(duan)。当输送(song)较重的(de)(de)(de)(de)工件(jian)(jian)(jian)时(shi)(shi),惯量大,因此,伺(si)服(fu)驱(qu)动(dong)电机(ji)(ji)要(yao)有足够的(de)(de)(de)(de)驱(qu)动(dong)和制动(dong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)能力(li),支撑元件(jian)(jian)(jian)也要(yao)有足够的(de)(de)(de)(de)刚度(du)(du)(du)及(ji)强度(du)(du)(du)。只(zhi)有这样(yang),才能使伺(si)服(fu)电动(dong)机(ji)(ji)满足桁架(jia)机(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)手输送(song)的(de)(de)(de)(de)高响应(ying)、高刚度(du)(du)(du)及(ji)高精度(du)(du)(du)要(yao)求。在(zai)(zai)选择(ze)合(he)适伺(si)服(fu)电动(dong)机(ji)(ji)的(de)(de)(de)(de)情况下(xia),根(gen)据(ju)物料运(yun)(yun)(yun)动(dong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)距离和运(yun)(yun)(yun)行(xing)节拍(pai),计算出伺(si)服(fu)系统(tong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)位移和轨迹(ji),对驱(qu)动(dong)器(qi)PID参(can)数进(jin)行(xing)动(dong)态(tai)调整。桁架(jia)机(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)手根(gen)据(ju)接(jie)收到的(de)(de)(de)(de)位移、速(su)(su)(su)(su)(su)度(du)(du)(du)指令,经(jing)变(bian)化、放大并(bing)(bing)调整处理后(hou),传递(di)给运(yun)(yun)(yun)动(dong)单元,通(tong)过光纤传感(gan)器(qi)对运(yun)(yun)(yun)行(xing)状态(tai)进(jin)行(xing)实时(shi)(shi)检测,在(zai)(zai)高速(su)(su)(su)(su)(su)搬运(yun)(yun)(yun)过程(cheng)中(zhong),运(yun)(yun)(yun)动(dong)部件(jian)(jian)(jian)在(zai)(zai)极短(duan)的(de)(de)(de)(de)时(shi)(shi)间(jian)内到达给定的(de)(de)(de)(de)速(su)(su)(su)(su)(su)度(du)(du)(du),并(bing)(bing)能在(zai)(zai)高速(su)(su)(su)(su)(su)行(xing)程(cheng)中(zhong)瞬间(jian)准停,通(tong)过高分辩率绝对式(shi)编(bian)码器(qi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)插补运(yun)(yun)(yun)算,控制机(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)误(wu)差和测量误(wu)差对运(yun)(yun)(yun)动(dong)精度(du)(du)(du)的(de)(de)(de)(de)影响。由于被(bei)(bei)输送(song)的(de)(de)(de)(de)工件(jian)(jian)(jian)不(bu)同,质量也不(bu)同,因此,桁架(jia)机(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)手有多种规格和系列。在(zai)(zai)选择(ze)时(shi)(shi),根(gen)据(ju)被(bei)(bei)输送(song)工件(jian)(jian)(jian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)质量,加工的(de)(de)(de)(de)节拍(pai)来选取。但机(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)手的(de)(de)(de)(de)手臂(bei),夹(jia)持方式(shi),则根(gen)据(ju)被(bei)(bei)输送(song)工件(jian)(jian)(jian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)形状、结构及(ji)机(ji)(ji)床夹(jia)具定夹(jia)方式(shi)来设计(见图2)。

机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)能够借助(zhu)可编程序(xu)来处理(li)和执行任务。机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)主(zhu)要(yao)由(you)手(shou)图 1 臂(bei)、回转装置、运动(dong)部件(jian)及驱动(dong)部件(jian)组成。通(tong)过对工(gong)件(jian)外(wai)形(xing)或工(gong)件(jian)上定(ding)位(wei)(wei)(wei)支(zhi)撑点(dian)定(ding)位(wei)(wei)(wei)夹(jia)(jia)(jia)持(chi)(chi)工(gong)件(jian)。例如,在汽车发动(dong)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)加(jia)工(gong)柔(rou)性自动(dong)线物流输(shu)送中,桁(heng)架机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)夹(jia)(jia)(jia)持(chi)(chi)模块(kuai)(kuai)会根(gen)据缸体、缸盖、曲轴等(deng)工(gong)件(jian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)外(wai)形(xing)特(te)点(dian),选(xuan)取不(bu)同(tong)(tong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)定(ding)位(wei)(wei)(wei)和夹(jia)(jia)(jia)持(chi)(chi)方式(shi)。柔(rou)性机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)上采用气缸和电机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)进行定(ding)位(wei)(wei)(wei)和夹(jia)(jia)(jia)持(chi)(chi)模块(kuai)(kuai)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)切(qie)换驱动(dong),一套机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)可完(wan)成不(bu)同(tong)(tong)品种的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)工(gong)件(jian)搬运工(gong)作。夹(jia)(jia)(jia)持(chi)(chi)定(ding)位(wei)(wei)(wei)模块(kuai)(kuai)可根(gen)据产(chan)品质(zhi)量和外(wai)形(xing)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)大(da)小(xiao)采用系列(lie)化设计,机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)上的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)夹(jia)(jia)(jia)持(chi)(chi)定(ding)位(wei)(wei)(wei)模块(kuai)(kuai)安装方式(shi)相同(tong)(tong),针对不(bu)同(tong)(tong)系列(lie)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)工(gong)件(jian),只需切(qie)换相应的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)夹(jia)(jia)(jia)持(chi)(chi)定(ding)位(wei)(wei)(wei)模块(kuai)(kuai)即可,满足快(kuai)速切(qie)换的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)需要(yao)。这样,当加(jia)工(gong)不(bu)同(tong)(tong)品种的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)工(gong)件(jian),只须变(bian)换夹(jia)(jia)(jia)持(chi)(chi)模块(kuai)(kuai)就可实现,提高了(le)桁(heng)架机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)性化。

桁架机械手在柔性加工自动线上的应用

1.自动线(xian)桁架(jia)机械手输送(song)装(zhuang)置的(de)发展及(ji)现状

自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)发展,经历了(le)(le)刚(gang)性(xing)(xing)(xing)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)和(he)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)两(liang)个(ge)时代(dai)。就目前而(er)言, 在国内(nei)二者(zhe)均有(you)之。刚(gang)性(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)输(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)分(fen)(fen)为(wei)棘轮棘爪、摆杆、抬(tai)起步伐、机(ji)(ji)(ji)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)滚(gun)道等(deng)形(xing)式。随着加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)中心(xin)机(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)发展,由(you)其组(zu)(zu)成(cheng)的(de)(de)(de)(de)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)逐步替代(dai)组(zu)(zu)合机(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)组(zu)(zu)成(cheng)的(de)(de)(de)(de)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian),它以适应小批量(liang)(liang)多品(pin)种(zhong)(zhong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)优(you)点,得到市场的(de)(de)(de)(de)广泛认可(ke),并(bing)称其为(wei)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)。这(zhei)种(zhong)(zhong)以加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)中心(xin)机(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)组(zu)(zu)成(cheng)的(de)(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian),就其输(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)装(zhuang)(zhuang)置(zhi)或输(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)带依(yi)然为(wei)刚(gang)性(xing)(xing)(xing), 这(zhei)类柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)可(ke)谓是准柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)。当今的(de)(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)又有(you)了(le)(le)飞跃(yue),输(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)形(xing)式以刚(gang)性(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)(shou))并(bing)存,或纯柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)输(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song),即(ji)输(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)系(xi)(xi)统(tong)全(quan)部(bu)由(you)桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)(shou)组(zu)(zu)成(cheng),这(zhei)是真正的(de)(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian),即(ji)主机(ji)(ji)(ji)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing),输(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)系(xi)(xi)统(tong)也柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)。如主机(ji)(ji)(ji)是高(gao)速(su)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)中心(xin)配(pei)以桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)(shou)输(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song),又称之为(wei)敏(min)捷柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian),是敏(min)捷制造(zao)系(xi)(xi)统(tong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)重(zhong)要组(zu)(zu)成(cheng)部(bu)分(fen)(fen)。自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)采(cai)用(yong)桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)(shou)输(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)后(hou),输(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)步距可(ke)根据机(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)配(pei)置(zhi)随意改(gai)(gai)变(bian)(bian),自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)上的(de)(de)(de)(de)机(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)与机(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)之间(jian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)安装(zhuang)(zhuang)位置(zhi)不再象刚(gang)性(xing)(xing)(xing)输(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)那样,按(an)照(zhao)输(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)步距或步距倍数(shu)(shu)的(de)(de)(de)(de)要求进行严格的(de)(de)(de)(de)安装(zhuang)(zhuang),且输(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)速(su)度也可(ke)根据生产节(jie)拍及(ji)输(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)的(de)(de)(de)(de)距离(li)而(er)改(gai)(gai)变(bian)(bian)。而(er)真正体现柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)输(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)的(de)(de)(de)(de)重(zhong)要一(yi)面是,当被加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)零件(jian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)产品(pin)改(gai)(gai)变(bian)(bian)后(hou),输(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)部(bu)分(fen)(fen)不会不适应而(er)全(quan)部(bu)更(geng)换,只要改(gai)(gai)变(bian)(bian)输(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)程序和(he)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)(shou)局部(bu)结构即(ji)可(ke)。采(cai)用(yong)桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)(shou)输(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)更(geng)先(xian)进的(de)(de)(de)(de)一(yi)面是,机(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)整体的(de)(de)(de)(de)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)化、智能化的(de)(de)(de)(de)协调(diao)统(tong)一(yi)。因此,桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)(shou)才在当今柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)上越(yue)来越(yue)多地被采(cai)用(yong),使整个(ge)生产过程通过信(xin)息(xi)流系(xi)(xi)统(tong)进行控(kong)(kong)制。在加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)和(he)运(yun)输(shu)(shu)过程中,所需各(ge)种(zhong)(zhong)信(xin)息(xi)收集、处理(li)、反馈,并(bing)通过电子计(ji)(ji)算(suan)(suan)(suan)机(ji)(ji)(ji)或其他(ta)控(kong)(kong)制装(zhuang)(zhuang)置(zhi)(液压、气压装(zhuang)(zhuang)置(zhi)等(deng)),对机(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)或运(yun)输(shu)(shu)设备实(shi)行分(fen)(fen)级控(kong)(kong)制。信(xin)息(xi)流系(xi)(xi)统(tong)分(fen)(fen)为(wei)由(you)中央管理(li)计(ji)(ji)算(suan)(suan)(suan)机(ji)(ji)(ji)、物流控(kong)(kong)制计(ji)(ji)算(suan)(suan)(suan)机(ji)(ji)(ji)、单元控(kong)(kong)制计(ji)(ji)算(suan)(suan)(suan)机(ji)(ji)(ji)、各(ge)数(shu)(shu)控(kong)(kong)机(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)以及(ji)信(xin)息(xi)传(chuan)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)网络组(zu)(zu)成(cheng)。目前,汽车制造(zao)业中加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)发动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)机(ji)(ji)(ji)缸体、缸盖及(ji)曲轴等(deng)大(da)批量(liang)(liang)关键零件(jian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian),大(da)都采(cai)用(yong)了(le)(le)桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)(shou)输(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(见(jian)图3)。

2. 国(guo)内外(wai)的差(cha)距

当下,我国(guo)(guo)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)的(de)(de)(de)发展(zhan)很快(kuai),技(ji)术(shu)水(shui)平有了很大(da)(da)的(de)(de)(de)提高(gao),与国(guo)(guo)外(wai)的(de)(de)(de)差距(ju)(ju)变得(de)越来越小,甚至有些机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)与国(guo)(guo)外(wai)相(xiang)比(bi)已经(jing)没有什么(me)差距(ju)(ju)。特别(bie)是国(guo)(guo)家重大(da)(da)科技(ji)专(zhuan)项(xiang)的(de)(de)(de)开展(zhan),为我国(guo)(guo)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)上档次上水(shui)平提高(gao)了加(jia)(jia)速(su)度,成(cheng)(cheng)绩显(xian)(xian)而易见。加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)这几(ji)年发展(zhan)的(de)(de)(de)特别(bie)快(kuai),但柔性(xing)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)的(de)(de)(de)技(ji)术(shu)水(shui)平和(he)(he)档次,较国(guo)(guo)外(wai)的(de)(de)(de)差距(ju)(ju)还很明显(xian)(xian),国(guo)(guo)外(wai)采用桁(heng)架机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械手(shou)(shou)输(shu)送(song)(song)的(de)(de)(de)柔性(xing)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)较为普(pu)遍(bian),而国(guo)(guo)内(nei)(nei)(nei)却为数(shu)不(bu)多,国(guo)(guo)内(nei)(nei)(nei)庞大(da)(da)的(de)(de)(de)汽车生(sheng)产(chan)市场所采用的(de)(de)(de)带桁(heng)架机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械手(shou)(shou)输(shu)送(song)(song)的(de)(de)(de)柔性(xing)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian),大(da)(da)多从(cong)国(guo)(guo)外(wai)进(jin)(jin)口(kou)。如无锡(xi)柴油(you)发动(dong)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)厂的(de)(de)(de)缸(gang)(gang)体(ti)缸(gang)(gang)盖柔性(xing)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)由德国(guo)(guo)GROB公司(si)总(zong)承包,由BZ800加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)、GROB专(zhuan)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)、清洗(xi)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)、拧紧机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)、试漏机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)、压装机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)在(zai)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)检具、辅机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)及珩磨机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)组成(cheng)(cheng)。输(shu)送(song)(song)采用空中(zhong)桁(heng)架机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械手(shou)(shou)和(he)(he)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)动(dong)滚道自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)输(shu)送(song)(song)。仅(jin)以汽车制造业而言,国(guo)(guo)内(nei)(nei)(nei)生(sheng)产(chan)的(de)(de)(de)柔性(xing)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian),采用桁(heng)架机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械手(shou)(shou)输(shu)送(song)(song)的(de)(de)(de)屈指(zhi)可数(shu)。大(da)(da)连(lian)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)集团(tuan)和(he)(he)沈(shen)阳(yang)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)集团(tuan)等生(sheng)产(chan)出了该方面的(de)(de)(de)柔性(xing)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian),并在(zai)生(sheng)产(chan)实际(ji)中(zhong)得(de)到(dao)了应用。图4是大(da)(da)连(lian)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)集团(tuan)生(sheng)产(chan)的(de)(de)(de)DKX017缸(gang)(gang)体(ti)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)柔性(xing)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)。加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)两(liang)(liang)种(zhong)缸(gang)(gang)体(ti),分别(bie)为四缸(gang)(gang)和(he)(he)六(liu)缸(gang)(gang),其输(shu)送(song)(song)采用空中(zhong)桁(heng)架机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械手(shou)(shou)和(he)(he)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)两(liang)(liang)端为机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)动(dong)滚道等形式。桁(heng)架机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械手(shou)(shou)两(liang)(liang)个,一(yi)个上料(liao),一(yi)个下料(liao)。它的(de)(de)(de)成(cheng)(cheng)功,标志(zhi)着(zhe)我国(guo)(guo)国(guo)(guo)产(chan)由桁(heng)架机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械手(shou)(shou)输(shu)送(song)(song)的(de)(de)(de)柔性(xing)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)开始(shi)向国(guo)(guo)际(ji)水(shui)准迈进(jin)(jin)。

上(shang)述提及的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)只是(shi)数(shu)量上(shang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)比较,其实(shi)真正的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)原因还(hai)是(shi)国(guo)(guo)产(chan)(chan)(chan)(chan)桁(heng)(heng)(heng)(heng)架(jia)(jia)机械(xie)(xie)手(shou)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)技术水(shui)平(ping)与(yu)国(guo)(guo)外有着一定的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)差距。柔性加工(gong)自(zi)动(dong)线采用(yong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)桁(heng)(heng)(heng)(heng)架(jia)(jia)机械(xie)(xie)手(shou),也是(shi)从国(guo)(guo)外进(jin)口的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)桁(heng)(heng)(heng)(heng)架(jia)(jia)机械(xie)(xie)手(shou)。那时,国(guo)(guo)内(nei)还(hai)没有专门生产(chan)(chan)(chan)(chan)桁(heng)(heng)(heng)(heng)架(jia)(jia)机械(xie)(xie)手(shou)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)厂家。如今,国(guo)(guo)内(nei)巨(ju)一等一些桁(heng)(heng)(heng)(heng)架(jia)(jia)机械(xie)(xie)手(shou)生产(chan)(chan)(chan)(chan)厂家的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)涌(yong)出,为国(guo)(guo)产(chan)(chan)(chan)(chan)柔性加工(gong)自(zi)动(dong)线带来了希望,进(jin)而缩(suo)小了与(yu)国(guo)(guo)外在(zai)生产(chan)(chan)(chan)(chan)桁(heng)(heng)(heng)(heng)架(jia)(jia)机械(xie)(xie)手(shou)方面的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)差距,国(guo)(guo)产(chan)(chan)(chan)(chan)桁(heng)(heng)(heng)(heng)架(jia)(jia)机械(xie)(xie)手(shou)在(zai)柔性加工(gong)自(zi)动(dong)线的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)应用(yong)也越来越多,从而打破(po)国(guo)(guo)产(chan)(chan)(chan)(chan)市场被(bei)外国(guo)(guo)人的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)垄断。

桁架机械手作为柔性输送系统,已成为柔性加工自动线中的重要组成部分,过去未采用桁架机械手输送的自动线中的输送部分称之为输送带或输送装置。而今,用了桁架机械手则称之为输送系统或物流系统。过去的输送带由机床生产厂自己生产,而今则由外部专业生产厂来提供;过去的输送带驱动或是用一个油缸,或是减速机通过链条或机动辊子驱动,各个动作单独来完成,所用时间较长且位置精度较差,而今则由伺服系统驱动,完成多个坐标的复合运动,所用时间短, 效率高, 且运动位置精准。这些的进步,都缘于技术水平的提高,解决了桁架机械手的关键技术及难点技术。相信,随着国产桁架机械手技术水平的不断提高,桁架机械手在柔性加工自动线上的应用会越来越多,采用桁架机械手的柔性加工自动线将会成为今后的一大卖点,市场前景非常可观,从而带动国产柔性加工自动线有一个质的飞跃。


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关键词:桁架机器人,桁架机械手,工业多关节机械手

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